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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

270        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

in a private school of his own and afterwards in a grammar school,
and wrote The Child's Portion (1640) and A Light to Grammar and
a Gate to Science (1641); John Milton (1608-1674), Latin
secretary to the Commonwealth and poet, who conducted a private
academy for seven years from 1640 and composed a tractate
Of Education in 1644 at Hartlib's request; the versatile Sir
William Petty (1623-1687)—scholar, seaman, inventor, surgeon,
surveyor, economist, part founder of the Royal Society—who
wrote among other things the Advice of W. P. to Mr. Samuel Hartlib
for the Advancement of some Particular Parts of Learning (1647-
1648). Only a brief indication of their characteristic views and
proposals need be given.

Hartlib's best work was done in inspiring his friends to write
about education and in making their views known to the govern-
ment and the public by his personal advocacy of them. His own
educational writings owed a great deal to Bacon and Comenius.
Perhaps his most original suggestion was one he made to Parlia-
ment in 1650 in a tractate entitled London's Charity Enlarged,
that a grant be given for the education of poor children. He had
a great faith in the power of the State to use education as a means
of social betterment. Dury had much in common with Hartlib.
In his Reformed School he expounds one of his friend's schemes
for the institution of a teaching society in England like the teaching
associations of France. His general point of view is explicitly
Baconian. In the same work, for example, he urges the establish-
ment of a universal system of schools in which the children from
eight or nine up to thirteen or fourteen are to observe " all things
natural and artificial extant in the world, whereunto their imagi-
nation shall be led in a certain method to cause them to reflect
orderly upon them and observe them in their several . . , proper-
ties, uses and references unto man by trades and manufactures,"
and then in the later years up to nineteen or twenty are to learn
and practise all the useful sciences and arts likely to fit them for
any employment in Church and commonwealth. Sir William
Petty carries this idea still further. He is not content with em-
phasizing concrete experience and requiring the teacher to begin
with sense-given facts: he actually wants the ordinary schools
to be converted into trade schools in which the children of all
classes could be set to learn some handicraft. Over and above
that, he wishes to see established a gymnasium mechanicum, or